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1-Butene is a simple organic compound classified as an alkene, meaning it contains a carbon-carbon double bond. Its chemical formula is C4H8, and it exists in four different structural isomers, each with the double bond located at a different carbon atom in the carbon chain.

In terms of its properties, 1-butene is a colorless gas at room temperature and pressure. It is highly flammable and can form explosive mixtures with air. Its boiling point is approximately -6.3°C (-20.7°F). In industrial settings, it is typically stored and transported as a liquefied gas under pressure.

Chemical formula C4H8
CAS Number 106-98-9
IUPAC Name But-1-ene
Other names 1-Butylene, Ethylethylene, α-Butylene
Molecular Weight 56.108 gm
Appearance Colorless gas
Density 0.62 g/cm3



1-Butene is commonly used as a starting material in the production of various chemicals, including plastics, synthetic rubber, and fuel additives. It is also used as a monomer in the production of polyethylene and in the synthesis of other organic compounds. Additionally, it can be found naturally in certain plant sources and is produced industrially through the catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions.

  • Polyethylene Production: It’s a key raw material in the production of polyethylene, a widely used plastic in packaging, containers, pipes, and more.
  • Fuel Additive: It can be used as a blending component in gasoline to improve its octane rating and performance.
  • Chemical Intermediate: 1-Butene is used in the synthesis of various chemicals like butadiene, which is used in the production of synthetic rubber.
  • Solvent: In some cases, it serves as a solvent in chemical processes.
  • Flavor & Fragrance Industry: It can be used as a starting material in the synthesis of certain flavors and fragrances.

Environmental impact and sustainability of 1-Butene

The environmental consequences of 1-butene are contingent upon how it’s produced, utilized, and disposed of.

Manufacturing: If derived from fossil fuels, its production may contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants. Yet, employing sustainable methods like bio-based processes could mitigate its environmental footprint.

Air Quality: 1-butene’s production and usage can emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), exacerbating air pollution and smog formation.

Water Contamination: Inadequate disposal of 1-butene or its derivatives may contaminate water sources, jeopardizing aquatic ecosystems and endangering aquatic life.

Waste Handling: Improper disposal of products containing 1-butene could lead to their accumulation in landfills, potentially posing long-term environmental risks.

Health Concerns: Human exposure to 1-butene, whether through inhalation or skin contact, can trigger respiratory and skin irritation.



This chemical is supplied in Isotank T50.


Molecular Sieve

Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) are part of the microporous material category known for their high adsorption capacity and selectivity towards various gases. They have an amorphous structure with a well-developed surface area and pore sizes similar to small molecule diameters. For instance, molecular sieves used to separate nitrogen from air have pore sizes ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 nm, distinguishing them from conventional carbonaceous adsorbents with broader pore size distributions.

The unique properties of molecular sieves make them valuable as adsorbents for gas mixture separation, particularly in air separation applications. Carbon-based molecular sieves have been instrumental in the commercialization of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes for nitrogen-air separation.

Their hydrophobic surface and resistance to acidic and basic environments enhance their suitability for gas separation. They have demonstrated effectiveness in separating gas mixtures with molecules differing in critical sizes by as little as 0.02 nm. The ability to tailor molecular sieve properties during preparation adds to their appeal as industrial adsorbents.

Characteristics Carbon Molecular Sieve 4A
Chemical formula Na2O • Al2O3 • 2SiO2 • 9/2H2O

Silica-Alumina ratio:        SiO2/ Al2O3 ≈ 2

CAS Number 70955-01-0
Other names zeolite
Molecular Weight 1704.65 gm
Appearance Cylindrical black solid, countless, extremely fine pore
Density 650-800 kg/m3



Carbon Molecular Sieve has emerged as a highly dependable drying agent used in a range of applications such as:

  • Dehumidifying refrigerants
  • Removing moisture from PU plastic or paint
  • Drying natural gas
  • Treating cracked gas
  • Drying glass units, whether filled with air or gas
  • Dehydrating highly polar compounds like methanol and ethanol
  • Removing moisture from unsaturated hydrocarbons such as ethylene, propylene, and butadiene

Environmental impact and sustainability of Carbon Molecular Sieve

Molecular sieves have a relatively low environmental impact compared to other adsorbent materials. This is due to several factors:

High Efficiency: Molecular sieves demonstrate excellent adsorption performance, allowing for more efficient separation and purification processes.

Regenerability: Molecular sieves can be regenerated and reused multiple times, reducing the need for frequent replacement and disposal.

Potential for Recycling and Reuse: After their useful life, molecular sieves can often be recycled or reused, further minimizing their environmental footprint.


This chemical is supplied in different-sized plastic drums


Boric Acid

Boric acid, a white powder or colorless crystal, is a weak boron-based acid. Boric acid is naturally present in mineral deposits like sassolite and can be sourced from hot mineral water springs. The minerals containing boric acid are processed using sulfuric acid to isolate crystalline boric acid. Borates, including boric acid, have a long history of use dating back to ancient times for purposes such as cleaning and food preservation. In 1948, boric acid was officially approved for insecticidal use in the United States. Additionally, it has been employed as an antiseptic and featured in various commercial products.

While minor, one-time consumption typically poses no significant harm, extensive ingestion or frequent contact can lead to toxicity symptoms such as gastrointestinal issues with green-blue vomit or diarrhea, distinctive skin alterations resembling ‘boiled lobster,’ and kidney damage that may be life-threatening. In severe instances, hemodialysis may be a viable treatment option.

Chemical formula H3BO3
CAS Number 10043-35-3
IUPAC Name Trihydroxidoboron
Other names Orthoboric acid, hydrogen orthoborate, trihydroxidoboron, boracic acid
Molecular Weight 61.84 gm
Appearance Colorless, transparent crystals, or white granules or powder, odorless
Density 1.44 g/cm³



Boric acid is a versatile substance with various applications in different fields.

  • Medicine: Boric acid is known for its antibacterial and antifungal properties, making it a valuable substance in medicine. It is used in disinfecting all body parts.
  • Lubricants: Boric acid is used in the production of lubricants that have high biological stability and pH stability due to its disinfection properties.
  • Fire Retardants: Boron salts, including boric acid, release water when heated, reducing ignition and fire.
  • Anti-Cancer Properties: Boric acid has been found to have anti-cancer properties, reducing the growth of cancer cells with higher doses.
  • Ceramic Industry: Boric acid is used to reduce the thermal expansion of materials and make ceramics, tiles, and glazed dishes shiny and attractive.
  • Insecticides: In households, it can be used to combat crawling insects like cockroaches

Additionally, it is a component in nickel plating solutions and electric capacitors, used for treating wicks and strengthening steel. In laboratory settings, boric acid is utilized to create buffer solutions.


Environmental impact and sustainability of Boric Acid

Boric acid undergoes decomposition at temperatures above 100 degrees Celsius, resulting in the formation of boric anhydride. The solution of boric anhydride is characterized as a weak acid. Boric acid and borate salts are typically eliminated from soils through leaching and absorption by plants. The low volatility of boric acid and other borates leads to minimal quantities of these compounds in the earth’s atmosphere. Particulates are removed through precipitation and direct deposition.

The half-life of airborne borate particles varies between a few days, contingent on the particle size and atmospheric conditions. Boric acid and borates are not believed to degrade or undergo transformation through photolysis, oxidation, or hydrolysis in the atmosphere.

When animals consume boric acid, they may experience increased salivation, thirst, elevated body temperature, vomiting, and diarrhea. Seizures and other neurological issues can manifest in cases of significant boric acid ingestion.


Boric acid is supplied in various forms, commonly in the form of white crystalline powder or granules. It can also be found in solution form in water.

Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda)

Caustic soda, an alkaline substance commonly found in household cleaning and hair care products, can cause liquefactive necrosis upon contact with tissues due to its high pH level. Caustic soda has a strong affinity for moisture. It readily absorbs water from the surrounding environment, continuing to do so until the point where it completely dissolves. This hygroscopic property of caustic soda means that it will continuously draw in and incorporate atmospheric moisture, transforming from a solid state into a liquid solution as more water is absorbed.

Caustic soda is one of the most important and widely used chemical feedstocks globally. Notably, caustic soda is also a co-product generated during the production of chlorine, which accounts for 97% of the chlorine manufacturing process through the electrolysis of sodium chloride.


Technical Characteristics

Chemical formula NaOH
CAS Number 1310-73-2
Other names Ascarite, Caustic soda, Lye, Soda lye

Sodium hydrate, White caustic

Molecular Weight 39.997 g/mole
Appearance White, opaque crystals
Density 2.13 g/cm³




This versatile chemical compound finds extensive applications across various industries:

  • Textile Industry: Caustic soda plays a crucial role in removing impurities from fibers during textile processing. The fabric is immersed in an alkaline solution containing caustic soda and boiled. This process causes oily substances like natural wax to dissolve, creating a layer of soapy residue on the surface of the solution. This phase, known as saponification, is integral to the overall textile treatment process, referred to as scouring.
  • Petroleum Engineering: Caustic soda is an effective neutralizing agent for sulfuric acid. During the drilling of formations using drilling mud, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) components present in certain geological layers can dissolve into the drilling mud, forming sulfuric acid. This acidic liquid is detrimental to the mechanical components of the drill bit. To mitigate the serious effects of the acid, mud engineers add caustic soda to the drilling mud solution. The caustic soda neutralizes the sulfuric acid, helping to protect the sensitive parts of the drill bit from corrosion and damage.
  • Paper industry: The majority of impurities present in the raw wood, including lignin, oleoresin, and waxes, are removed by utilizing caustic soda. This process helps in separating these impurities from the wood, allowing for the production of high-quality cellulose needed for paper manufacturing.
  • Food processing: the browning of pretzels to enhance their crispiness. It is employed to peel the skin off tomatoes, potatoes, and other fruits and vegetables before canning. Additionally, caustic soda serves as a food preservative ingredient, playing a crucial role in inhibiting the growth of mold and bacteria in food products.


Environmental impact and sustainability of Caustic Soda   

Caustic soda, being a potent alkali, has the potential to cause severe burns and tissue damage if it comes into contact with the skin or eyes. It is crucial to wear appropriate protective gear like gloves and goggles while working with caustic soda to reduce the risk of injury.

When caustic soda mixes with water, it undergoes an exothermic reaction, releasing heat. This reaction can be vigorous, leading to splashes and burns. Dilution processes should be approached with caution to prevent accidents.

Inhaling caustic soda fumes or mist can irritate the respiratory system, causing coughing or breathing difficulties. Adequate ventilation is necessary in enclosed spaces where caustic soda is used to minimize inhalation risks.

Disposing of caustic soda solutions into water bodies can harm the environment. The high alkalinity of caustic soda can disrupt water pH levels, affecting aquatic ecosystems. Proper disposal methods that adhere to environmental regulations are essential to mitigate these environmental risks.

Packing and Storage

Caustic soda is packed and stored using specific packing to ensure safety, prevent contamination, and maintain its quality. In order to deliver sodium hydroxide products to the customer, different packings are used as follows:

25 KG Polypropylene Bags; Jumbo bags; Shrinked 25 KG Bags on Wooden Pallets; and IBC Container.

The availability of caustic soda in these different formats allows for flexibility in transportation, storage, and distribution, catering to the specific requirements of various applications and industries.

Because its vapors are toxic, sodium hydroxide storage should be well-ventilated. Secure storage buildings to prevent unauthorized access. Never allow untrained personnel access to caustic soda. Caustic soda crystallizes at low temperatures. Keep storage temperatures controlled in the range 85 F to 100 F. If the temperature drops below 65 F, the viscosity of the product increases, which may affect its performance.

Citric Acid

Citric acid is a naturally occurring substance and a common metabolite found in plants and animals. A healthy adult human body produces and metabolizes approximately 1.5 kg of citric acid per day. Additionally, this organic acid is obtained from a wide variety of natural dietary sources.

Citric acid has several highly variable characteristics, and as a purely biological product, it can be safely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. As a result, citric acid is employed in a growing number of products and is the most versatile and widely used organic acid in the food and beverage (70%) as well as the pharmaceutical (10%) sectors.

The production of citric acid (CA) fluctuates based on factors such as demand, pricing, and manufacturer capacity. In recent years, the CA market has faced significant pressure. The high costs of raw materials and energy have transformed what was once a profitable CA production sector into an unprofitable market. As a result, finding alternative.

Technical Characteristics

Chemical formula C₆H₈O₇
CAS Number 77-92-9
Other names 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, Anhydrous citric acid, Citrate, Citric Acid Monohydrate, Uralyt U
Molecular Weight 192.124 g/mole
Appearance Odorless white solid
Density 1.66 g/cm³ (Anhydrous)



The application of citric acid spans across various industries and products.

Food and Beverages: Citric acid is widely used as a preservative, flavor enhancer, and acidity regulator in food and beverage products. It helps extend shelf life, adds a tart, tangy flavor, and adjusts the pH.

Cosmetics: In cosmetics, citric acid is added to skincare products like cleansers, toners, and serums. It helps brighten the skin, minimize the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and even out skin tone.

Cleaning Products: Citric acid is utilized in cleaning products due to its disinfectant properties, ability to remove stains, and effectiveness in removing hard water deposits and buildup.

Pharmaceuticals: In the pharmaceutical industry, citric acid serves as a pH corrector and antioxidant. It helps preserve the stability and potency of vitamins, minerals, and other active ingredients in drug formulations.

Environmental impact and sustainability of Citric Acid

The corrosive properties of this substance can hinder plant germination. Increasing the amount of this substance in the soil raises its acidity, disrupting plant growth systems and potentially leading to premature plant death due to nutrient deficiencies. While citric acid has some positive effects on the environment and human life, its impact is limited.

Repeated application of this acid can induce an allelopathic effect in plants, inhibiting the growth of plants and biological processes. This characteristic has led to the use of citric acid in weed control. Additionally, small quantities of citric acid and ascorbic acid can aid in the rooting and survival of cherry branches.

Excessive use of citric acid in water can disrupt the Krebs cycle and lead to the accumulation of excess phosphate. The Krebs cycle is essential for plants to convert citric acids into phosphate, providing energy to cells.

Packing and Storage

Citric acid is offered in various physical forms for commercial use, including granular, fine granular, powder, liquid (as a 50% solution), and anhydrous (solid) forms. Companies such as Univar Solutions supply citric acid in these diverse granular, powder, and liquid variations to cater to the requirements of different industries and applications. Citric Acid and Citrates shall be kept in tightly closed containers in a cool, dry, well-ventilated and pollution-free place. Open-air storage is not allowed. Keep away from toxic, harmful, corrosive, polluting goods. Keep at temperature not exceeding 30℃ at a relative humidity not exceeding 50%. Citric acid can be packaged and delivered in sacks or big bags.

Chromic acid

Chromic acid, a strong oxidizing agent that is utilized in various industries, comprises a chromium atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms. In its structure, two oxygen atoms each form single bonds with the chromium atom and a hydrogen atom individually, while the remaining two oxygen atoms create double bonds with the chromium atom.

Chromic acid is produced when chromium trioxide reacts with water. Chromium trioxide is crystalline, light red or brown in color, deliquescent, and fully soluble in water. Chromic acid is a very weak acid, and its salts can be dissociated even by acetic acid. It has a powerful oxidizing effect and is itself reduced to CrO3, which is why it should never be combined with alcohol or formalin. However, chromic acid is used in combination with formalin in some fixing fluids, where the reducing action is slow, allowing for the completion of fixation before the acid is fully reduced.

Technical Characteristics

Chemical formula H2CrO4
CAS Number 7738-94-5
Other names Chromic(VI) acid, Dihydroxidodioxidochromium, tetraoxochromic acid, Dichromic acid
Molecular Weight 118.01 g/mole (chromic acid)
Appearance Odorless dark purplish-red sand-like crystalline solid or powder
Density 1.201 g/cm³



Chromic acid was once commonly used as a strong oxidizing agent for cleaning laboratory glassware, eliminating any stubborn organic residues that were otherwise difficult to remove. However, due to significant health concerns, its use has been prohibited in many institutions.

Other than that chromic acid finds applications in various industries and processes due to its unique properties.

Metal Finishing: Chromic acid is used in metal finishing processes where surfaces of objects are coated. It plays a crucial role in chromium plating.

Wood Preservation: Chromic acid is involved in wood preservatives to protect wood from bacteria and insects.

Plastic Production: Chromic acid plays a role in the production of plastic products.

Textile Industry: It is used as a mordant in the textile industry, facilitating the reaction between dyes and fabrics.

Musical Instrument Repair: Chromic acid was widely used in the musical instrument repair industry to brighten raw brass, leaving a bright yellow patina on the brass.

Photography: It is used as a bleach in black and white photographic reversal processing.

Other Applications: Chromic acid is also utilized in the oxidation of organic compounds in organic chemistry reactions, in laboratories, instrument repair, and in the metal industry.

Environmental impact and sustainability of Chromic acid

Chromic acid’s environmental impact and sustainability are major concerns due to its toxicity and carcinogenic properties. It has been extensively used in various applications, such as cleaning lab glassware, metal finishing, wood preservation, plastic production, ceramic glazes, and colored glass manufacturing. However, due to its dangerous nature, its use has been prohibited in many places, and eco-friendly alternatives have been developed.

Packing and Storage

Chromic acid is provided by a variety of distributors and manufacturers like Chemicals Global, Wego Chemical Group, and Vishnu Chemicals. These suppliers offer chromic acid in various forms and quantities, including chromium trioxide, a key component of chromic acid. Typically, the acid is delivered in steel drums equipped with locking rings, available in sizes ranging from 25 kg to 250 kg. Proper storage of chromic acid is advised in a cool, dry, and well-ventilated area, away from flammable materials.

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, commonly known as ABS, is a thermoplastic polymer that is widely used in various industries. It is a combination of three different monomers: acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene. Each monomer brings unique properties to the material, resulting in a versatile and high-performance polymer.

ABS is characterized by its exceptional strength, impact resistance, and heat resistance. These properties make it an ideal choice for applications where durability and dimensional stability are crucial. Whether it’s automotive components, household appliances, toys, or electronics, ABS offers a reliable and durable solution for manufacturers.

The combination of acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene plays a significant role in determining the properties of ABS. Acrylonitrile provides chemical resistance and hardness, making ABS resistant to oil, grease, and various chemicals. Butadiene enhances toughness and impact resistance, allowing ABS to withstand heavy impacts without cracking or breaking. Styrene contributes to rigidity and processability, ensuring that ABS can be easily molded into complex shapes and intricate designs.

Chemical formula (C8H8·C4H6·C3H3N)n
CAS Number 9003-56-9
IUPAC Name buta-1,3-diene;prop-2-enenitrile;styrene
Other names Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer


Abs resins

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene



butadiene styrene acrylonitrile

styrene-butadiene acrylonitrile


Molecular Weight 211.30 g/mol
Appearance Natural or opaque colors solid pellets.
Density 1.060–1.080 g/cm3 Solubility in water          Insoluble in water



ABS finds its applications in a wide range of industries due to its versatile nature and outstanding properties.

  • most common uses of ABS is in the automotive industry

It is used for manufacturing various components, including dashboard panels, interior trim, exterior body parts, and even entire car bodies. The strength, impact resistance, and heat resistance of ABS make it an ideal material for withstanding the demanding conditions of the automotive environment.

  • ABS is in the production of household appliances.

ABS is commonly used for manufacturing refrigerator liners, washing machine parts, vacuum cleaner housings, and kitchen appliances. Its chemical resistance makes it suitable for contact with food and cleaning agents, while its impact resistance ensures durability and longevity.

  • toy industry

Its strength and impact resistance make it safe for use in toys that may be subject to rough handling or accidental drops. Additionally, ABS can be easily molded into various shapes and sizes, allowing toy manufacturers to create intricate designs and vibrant colors.

  • The electronics industry

ABS is used for manufacturing computer and laptop casings, mobile phone cases, and other electronic device enclosures. Its heat resistance ensures that the components inside the devices are protected from high temperatures, while its rigidity provides structural support.

MSDS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

Hazard(s) Identification:

Exposure: The product as shipped (pelletized) should not present a health hazard during normal handling and processing. However, fabrications and processing operations should be reviewed to avoid the generation of dusts and/or fiber particles, which may be considered hazardous.

Eyes: Solid or dust may cause irritation or cornea injury due to mechanical action.

Skin Contact: Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause skin irritation but is essentially nonirritating to the skin.

Inhalation: Dust or vapors may cause irritation.

Ingestion: May cause choking if swallowed. Single dose oral toxicity is believed to be very low.

Fire Hazards:

Dense black smoke and intense heat emit when burned without sufficient oxygen. Toxic fumes are released in fire situations. The product can form an explosive dust/air mixture.

Composition/Information on Ingredients:

First-aid Measures:

Seek immediate medical attention in case of skin or eye contact, or ingestion.

Exposure Controls/Personal Protection:

Proper protective clothing, respiratory protection, and mechanical ventilation are advised to maintain exposure levels below the hazardous level.

Physical and Chemical Properties:

Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur.

Stability: Polymer decomposes above 300º C (572º F).

Environmental impact and sustainability of ABS

ABS is a highly durable material that can withstand harsh conditions, reducing the need for frequent replacements. This can result in a lower overall environmental footprint compared to materials that require more frequent replacements.

Additionally, ABS is recyclable. It can be melted down and reprocessed into new ABS products or other plastic products. Recycling ABS reduces the demand for virgin plastic, conserves natural resources, and reduces waste in landfills.

However, it is important to note that not all ABS products are easily recyclable. ABS products may contain additives or coatings that can complicate the recycling process.

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