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Category: Products

Ammonia Liquid

Liquid ammonia is a colorless aqueous solution with a pungent odor that is used as an acidity regulator.

Ammonia gas is converted to liquid under pressure of 125 psi (862 kPa) to be used for various purposes. Like other gases, the solubility of ammonia decreases with increasing solvent temperature, and the density of ammonia solution decreases with increasing concentration of dissolved ammonia. At higher temperatures, the purity of the saturated solution decreases and the density increases. After heating saturated solutions, ammonia gas is released.

Technical Characteristics

CAS Number7664-41-7
Other namesAzane Hydrogen nitride R-717 Amidogen Hydrogen amine Nitrogen hydride
Molecular Weight17.031 g/mol
Chemical FormulaNH3
AppearanceColorless gas
Density0.6819 g/cm3 at −33.3 °C (liquid)
Boiling point-33.34 °C
Melting point-77.73 °C
Smellextremely pungent

Applications

  • Pioneer of nitrogen compounds
  • Raw chemical for Urea production
  • Antimicrobial agent for food industry
  • Surface cleaner
  • Fuel
  • Textile Industry
  • Cooler
  • Solvent (liquid phase)
  • Oil industry as an acid neutralizer and equipment protector against corrosion
  • The raw material for the production of explosives such as TNT
  • Stabilizer of the rubber production

Environmental impact of Ammonia

Today, they are trying to reduce the pollution of greenhouse gases such as ammonia from the planet. In general, the harmful effects of NH3, as a toxic substance affecting the environment, cannot be ignored. When this substance is in the vicinity of other chemicals, irreparable damage may occur to humans.

Handling and Storage of Ammonia

Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect against physical damage. Separate from incompatibilities. Store below 25 C. Protect from direct sunlight. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.

Packing

Ammonia Solution is supplied in varying packaging capacities ranging from 5 liters to 235 liters HDPE plastic containers, 6 MT to 15 MT tankers and 22 MT isotank.

Acetic Acid

Acetic acid with the chemical formula CH3COOH is an organic acid.  This acid is a weak acid because only some acid is isolated in aqueous solution. Pure anhydrous acetic acid (glacial acetic acid) is a colorless liquid that absorbs water from its surroundings (hygroscopic) and freezes at a temperature of 16.5 °C in the form of a colorless crystalline solid. Pure acid and its concentrated solutions are very corrosive.

Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. This acid is an important chemical reagent and is an industrial chemical used in the production of the different chemicals.  

Acetic acid is produced industrially both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation. About 75% of acetic acid made for use in the chemical industry is made by the carbonylation of methanol. The biological route accounts for only about 10% of world production, but it remains important for the production of vinegar because many food purity laws require vinegar used in foods to be of biological origin. Other processes are methyl formate isomerization, conversion of syngas to acetic acid, and gas phase oxidation of ethylene and ethanol.

Technical Characteristics
CAS Number64-19-7
Other namesEthanoic acid Vinegar Hydrogen acetate Methanecarboxylic acid Ethylic acid
Molecular Weight60.052 g/mol
Chemical FormulaCH3COOH
AppearanceColorless liquid
Density1.049 g/cm3 (liquid)
Boiling point118 to 119 °C
Melting point16 to 17 °C

Applications 

  • Acetic acid exhibits strong bactericidal and antifungal activities
  • As a solvent
  • An acidity regulator in the food industry
  • Raw chemical for production of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM)
  • Raw chemical for production of cellulose acetate, a versatile material used in the manufacturing of films, fibers, and cigarette filters

Environmental impact of Acetic acid

This compound does not have any special environmental problem and is biodegradable. It is soluble in water and can penetrate the soil and slightly acidify the soil.

Safety Measures and Regulations for Handling Acetic acid

While acetic acid has numerous beneficial uses, it is essential to handle it with caution due to its corrosive nature. Concentrated acetic acid can cause severe burns and damage to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. It is crucial to follow safety guidelines when working with acetic acid and use appropriate protective equipment.

When using acetic acid in household cleaning, dilution is necessary to ensure safety. It is important to read and follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer to avoid any adverse effects. Proper ventilation is also recommended when using acetic acid-based cleaners to prevent inhaling high concentrations of the vapors.

Packing

It is transported in the dedicated SS or Al tank truck, SS shipping tank or plastic barrel. The packing capacity of the plastic barrel is 25 kg, 50 kg or 200 kg. The packing container shall be clean and dry, and shall be gently handled to prevent any collision during transportation and loading/unloading.

HDPE

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) or Polyethylene High Density (PEHD) is a type of thermoplastic polymer with wide range of applications. In terms of volume, High-density polyethylene (HDPE) ranks as the third most abundant commodity plastic material globally, following polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene. Its exceptional tensile strength, high strength-to-density ratio, impact resistance, and elevated melting point set HDPE apart as a preferred material. HDPE is extensively recycled and is designated with the recycling symbol no. “2”, indicating its recyclability.

Characteristics

The molecular structure of HDPE consists of repeating ethylene monomer units, forming a polyethylene chain. HDPE is often known as a “semi-linear” chain. Compared to low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene resin has a higher proportion of crystalline regions, contributing to its distinct characteristics.

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) exhibits minimal branching, resulting in enhanced intermolecular forces and tensile strength compared to lower-density polyethylene. It is characterized by increased hardness, opacity, and a higher tolerance for elevated temperatures.

Available Grades
Cast FilmF0863
 PCGF0863
 FI0851P
PipeP6006
 F4520
B5823
 P5510
Blow MoldingF00752AM
FJ00952
 FI1157
InjectionM200050
 M300054
CC254
 M80063S

Applications

HDPE demonstrates resistance to a wide range of solvents and finds diverse applications in various industries, including but not limited to: telecommunication ducts, containers, laundry detergent bottles, milk jugs, vehicle fuel tanks, plastic lumber, folding tables, folding chairs, storage sheds, bases for portable basketball systems, plastic bags, containment of specific chemicals, chemical-resistant piping systems, heat-resistant fireworks display mortars, geothermal heat transfer piping systems, natural gas distribution pipe systems, domestic water supply pipes, coaxial cable inner insulators, root barriers, corrosion protection for steel pipelines, refillable bottles, ballistic plates, and more. In sanitary landfills, HDPE is utilized as cell liners to create a chemical-resistant barrier, preventing soil and groundwater pollution from solid waste liquids. HDPE is extensively used in wood-plastic composites, composite wood, and recycled polymers play a significant role in this application. Additionally, HDPE is prevalent in the polytechnics industry. HDPE mortars are favored over steel or PVC tubes due to their superior durability and safety features.

Environmental impact and sustainability of HDPE

HDPE is recognized as a more environmentally conscious plastic option due to its ability to be recycled and its long-lasting nature. Recycled HDPE finds applications in various sectors such as plastic furniture, automotive components, and construction materials like plastic lumber. Despite its non-biodegradable nature, the recyclability of HDPE enhances its sustainability profile. Improper disposal of HDPE items can contribute to plastic pollution and waste accumulation. To address these environmental concerns, it is essential to focus on increasing the recycling rates of HDPE, exploring alternative sustainable sources, and advocating for responsible waste management practices.

Packing

Polyethylene (HDPE) available for purchase in 25 kg bags.

Corrosion Inhibitor

Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) are anticorrosion chemicals that can be added to a corrosive environment to create physical and chemical interactions with the metal surface. This significantly reduces the corrosion of the metal material. The use of corrosion inhibitors does not require specialized equipment or changes to the metal properties.

Compared to other anticorrosion methods, corrosion inhibitors are easy to use, cost-effective, and widely employed in industrial production and everyday life.

The ease of application, cost-effectiveness, and versatility of corrosion inhibitors make them a preferred choice for protecting metal materials from corrosion in a wide range of industrial settings.

In fact, they are widely used to address two key challenges:

1. Reducing Metallic Waste During Production:

   – Corrosion inhibitors help minimize the loss of metallic materials during various industrial processes, preventing unnecessary waste.

2. Reducing the Risk of Material Failure:

   – By inhibiting corrosion, these chemicals help prevent sudden and unexpected failures of materials, which can lead to the abrupt shutdown of industrial operations.

The suitability of any given chemical for a task in hand depends on many factors, including their operating temperature.

Applications

Corrosion inhibitors are extensively utilized across various industrial processes, such as: pickling, cooling water systems, acidification of oil and gas wells, water injection in oil fields, storage and transportation of metal products.

Oil and Gas Industry

  • Used to mitigate corrosion caused by acidic gases like CO2 and H2S in oil and gas production
  • Applied to downhole tubing, pipelines, and equipment made of carbon steel to prevent corrosion

Marine Industry

  • Used to prevent corrosion of aluminum and mild steel used in marine equipment and infrastructure
  • Helps extend the lifespan of machinery and reduce maintenance costs

Automobile Industry

  • Used to prevent pipeline rusting and corrosion
  • Added to lubricant oils to protect the engine from corrosion

Wastewater Treatment Plants

  • Used to protect steel sewage pipes from rust and corrosion, improving their lifespan

Environmental impact and sustainability of Corrosion Inhibitor

The use of inhibitors is linked to significant drawbacks, including issues related to toxicity, environmental harm, and negative health impacts. Notably, substances like chromates, known for their high efficacy in preventing corrosion, are also identified as carcinogenic. On the other hand, phosphates can lead to eutrophication, promoting algae growth and causing water pollution. Given these concerns, there is a growing interest in developing sustainable corrosion inhibitors that balance effectiveness with environmental consciousness. This shift is driven by the acknowledgment of the harmful effects associated with conventional inhibitors, such as the carcinogenic properties of chromates and the eutrophication effects of phosphates, prompting the search for safer and more environmentally friendly alternatives.

Packing

Based on the type of corrosion inhibitor, the packaging can vary to accommodate different storage and transportation needs. Corrosion inhibitors may be packaged in barrels, typically 55-gallon drums, for easier handling and distribution, also they can be supplied in larger Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs), often in the range of 275-gallon capacity. For large-scale industrial applications, corrosion inhibitors may be packaged and transported in iso tanks.

Acrylonitrile (ACN)

Acrylonitrile is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, with a faintly pungent odor. It is also known as vinyl cyanide and cyanoethylene. Its chemical formula, C₃H₃N, reveals a structure composed of a carbon triple bond to a nitrogen atom. It can be dissolved in water and evaporates quickly. Acrylonitrile is used to make other chemicals such as plastics, synthetic rubber, and acrylic fibers. A mixture of acrylonitrile and carbon tetrachloride was used as a pesticide in the past; however, all pesticide uses have stopped.

Technical Characteristics
CAS Number 1-13-107
Other names ACN 2-Propenenitrile Vinyl cyanide Cyanoethylene
Propenenitrile
Vinyl nitrile
Molecular Weight 53.06 g/mol
Chemical Formula C3H3N
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 0.81 g/cm3
Boiling point 77 °C
Melting point −84 °C

Applications         

  • Monomer for the production of polyacrylonitrile
  • Production of copolymers such as ABS, SAN and ASA
  • Nylon raw material
  • Acrylonitrile-based plastics and rubber like NBR
  • Textile industry

Environmental impact and sustainability of ACN

While acrylonitrile offers numerous benefits, it is important to acknowledge the potential risks associated with its use. Acrylonitrile vapor is highly flammable and poses a fire hazard, requiring appropriate safety measures during storage and handling.

In terms of health effects, acrylonitrile exposure can have various impacts. Inhaling high levels of acrylonitrile vapor may cause respiratory irritation, dizziness, and headaches. Prolonged exposure can lead to more severe health issues, including damage to the liver, kidneys, and nervous system.

Studies have also shown that acrylonitrile may have carcinogenic properties, with occupational exposure potentially increasing the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Therefore, it is essential for industries and individuals working with acrylonitrile to implement stringent safety measures and adhere to regulatory guidelines.

Safety Measures and Regulations for Handling Acrylonitrile

To ensure safe handling and minimize the risks associated with acrylonitrile, various safety measures and regulations have been established. These guidelines aim to protect workers, the environment, and the general public.

Proper ventilation systems should be in place to control and remove acrylonitrile vapors. Personal protective equipment, such as gloves, goggles, and respiratory masks, should be worn by individuals working with acrylonitrile to minimize direct exposure.

Strict adherence to storage and handling procedures is crucial to prevent accidents and minimize the potential for fires. Emergency response plans should be in place, and personnel should be trained to respond effectively in case of spills, leaks, or other incidents involving acrylonitrile.

Regulatory bodies, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have established guidelines and regulations for the safe handling and disposal of acrylonitrile. Compliance with these regulations is essential to ensure the responsible use of this chemical compound.

Packing

This chemical is supplied in Isotank T-14.

Butene

1-Butene

1-Butene is a simple organic compound classified as an alkene, meaning it contains a carbon-carbon double bond. Its chemical formula is C4H8, and it exists in four different structural isomers, each with the double bond located at a different carbon atom in the carbon chain.

In terms of its properties, 1-butene is a colorless gas at room temperature and pressure. It is highly flammable and can form explosive mixtures with air. Its boiling point is approximately -6.3°C (-20.7°F). In industrial settings, it is typically stored and transported as a liquefied gas under pressure.

Characteristics
Chemical formula C4H8
CAS Number 106-98-9
IUPAC Name But-1-ene
Other names 1-Butylene, Ethylethylene, α-Butylene
Molecular Weight 56.108 gm
Appearance Colorless gas
Density 0.62 g/cm3

 

Applications

1-Butene is commonly used as a starting material in the production of various chemicals, including plastics, synthetic rubber, and fuel additives. It is also used as a monomer in the production of polyethylene and in the synthesis of other organic compounds. Additionally, it can be found naturally in certain plant sources and is produced industrially through the catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions.

  • Polyethylene Production: It’s a key raw material in the production of polyethylene, a widely used plastic in packaging, containers, pipes, and more.
  • Fuel Additive: It can be used as a blending component in gasoline to improve its octane rating and performance.
  • Chemical Intermediate: 1-Butene is used in the synthesis of various chemicals like butadiene, which is used in the production of synthetic rubber.
  • Solvent: In some cases, it serves as a solvent in chemical processes.
  • Flavor & Fragrance Industry: It can be used as a starting material in the synthesis of certain flavors and fragrances.

Environmental impact and sustainability of 1-Butene

The environmental consequences of 1-butene are contingent upon how it’s produced, utilized, and disposed of.

Manufacturing: If derived from fossil fuels, its production may contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants. Yet, employing sustainable methods like bio-based processes could mitigate its environmental footprint.

Air Quality: 1-butene’s production and usage can emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), exacerbating air pollution and smog formation.

Water Contamination: Inadequate disposal of 1-butene or its derivatives may contaminate water sources, jeopardizing aquatic ecosystems and endangering aquatic life.

Waste Handling: Improper disposal of products containing 1-butene could lead to their accumulation in landfills, potentially posing long-term environmental risks.

Health Concerns: Human exposure to 1-butene, whether through inhalation or skin contact, can trigger respiratory and skin irritation.

 

Packing

This chemical is supplied in Isotank T50.

.

Molecular Sieve

Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) are part of the microporous material category known for their high adsorption capacity and selectivity towards various gases. They have an amorphous structure with a well-developed surface area and pore sizes similar to small molecule diameters. For instance, molecular sieves used to separate nitrogen from air have pore sizes ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 nm, distinguishing them from conventional carbonaceous adsorbents with broader pore size distributions.

The unique properties of molecular sieves make them valuable as adsorbents for gas mixture separation, particularly in air separation applications. Carbon-based molecular sieves have been instrumental in the commercialization of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes for nitrogen-air separation.

Their hydrophobic surface and resistance to acidic and basic environments enhance their suitability for gas separation. They have demonstrated effectiveness in separating gas mixtures with molecules differing in critical sizes by as little as 0.02 nm. The ability to tailor molecular sieve properties during preparation adds to their appeal as industrial adsorbents.

Characteristics Carbon Molecular Sieve 4A
Chemical formula Na2O • Al2O3 • 2SiO2 • 9/2H2O

Silica-Alumina ratio:        SiO2/ Al2O3 ≈ 2

CAS Number 70955-01-0
Other names zeolite
Molecular Weight 1704.65 gm
Appearance Cylindrical black solid, countless, extremely fine pore
Density 650-800 kg/m3

 

Applications

Carbon Molecular Sieve has emerged as a highly dependable drying agent used in a range of applications such as:

  • Dehumidifying refrigerants
  • Removing moisture from PU plastic or paint
  • Drying natural gas
  • Treating cracked gas
  • Drying glass units, whether filled with air or gas
  • Dehydrating highly polar compounds like methanol and ethanol
  • Removing moisture from unsaturated hydrocarbons such as ethylene, propylene, and butadiene

Environmental impact and sustainability of Carbon Molecular Sieve

Molecular sieves have a relatively low environmental impact compared to other adsorbent materials. This is due to several factors:

High Efficiency: Molecular sieves demonstrate excellent adsorption performance, allowing for more efficient separation and purification processes.

Regenerability: Molecular sieves can be regenerated and reused multiple times, reducing the need for frequent replacement and disposal.

Potential for Recycling and Reuse: After their useful life, molecular sieves can often be recycled or reused, further minimizing their environmental footprint.

Packing

This chemical is supplied in different-sized plastic drums

.

Boric Acid

Boric acid, a white powder or colorless crystal, is a weak boron-based acid. Boric acid is naturally present in mineral deposits like sassolite and can be sourced from hot mineral water springs. The minerals containing boric acid are processed using sulfuric acid to isolate crystalline boric acid. Borates, including boric acid, have a long history of use dating back to ancient times for purposes such as cleaning and food preservation. In 1948, boric acid was officially approved for insecticidal use in the United States. Additionally, it has been employed as an antiseptic and featured in various commercial products.

While minor, one-time consumption typically poses no significant harm, extensive ingestion or frequent contact can lead to toxicity symptoms such as gastrointestinal issues with green-blue vomit or diarrhea, distinctive skin alterations resembling ‘boiled lobster,’ and kidney damage that may be life-threatening. In severe instances, hemodialysis may be a viable treatment option.

Characteristics
Chemical formula H3BO3
CAS Number 10043-35-3
IUPAC Name Trihydroxidoboron
Other names Orthoboric acid, hydrogen orthoborate, trihydroxidoboron, boracic acid
Molecular Weight 61.84 gm
Appearance Colorless, transparent crystals, or white granules or powder, odorless
Density 1.44 g/cm³

 

Applications

Boric acid is a versatile substance with various applications in different fields.

  • Medicine: Boric acid is known for its antibacterial and antifungal properties, making it a valuable substance in medicine. It is used in disinfecting all body parts.
  • Lubricants: Boric acid is used in the production of lubricants that have high biological stability and pH stability due to its disinfection properties.
  • Fire Retardants: Boron salts, including boric acid, release water when heated, reducing ignition and fire.
  • Anti-Cancer Properties: Boric acid has been found to have anti-cancer properties, reducing the growth of cancer cells with higher doses.
  • Ceramic Industry: Boric acid is used to reduce the thermal expansion of materials and make ceramics, tiles, and glazed dishes shiny and attractive.
  • Insecticides: In households, it can be used to combat crawling insects like cockroaches

Additionally, it is a component in nickel plating solutions and electric capacitors, used for treating wicks and strengthening steel. In laboratory settings, boric acid is utilized to create buffer solutions.

 

Environmental impact and sustainability of Boric Acid

Boric acid undergoes decomposition at temperatures above 100 degrees Celsius, resulting in the formation of boric anhydride. The solution of boric anhydride is characterized as a weak acid. Boric acid and borate salts are typically eliminated from soils through leaching and absorption by plants. The low volatility of boric acid and other borates leads to minimal quantities of these compounds in the earth’s atmosphere. Particulates are removed through precipitation and direct deposition.

The half-life of airborne borate particles varies between a few days, contingent on the particle size and atmospheric conditions. Boric acid and borates are not believed to degrade or undergo transformation through photolysis, oxidation, or hydrolysis in the atmosphere.

When animals consume boric acid, they may experience increased salivation, thirst, elevated body temperature, vomiting, and diarrhea. Seizures and other neurological issues can manifest in cases of significant boric acid ingestion.

Packing

Boric acid is supplied in various forms, commonly in the form of white crystalline powder or granules. It can also be found in solution form in water.

Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda)

Caustic soda, an alkaline substance commonly found in household cleaning and hair care products, can cause liquefactive necrosis upon contact with tissues due to its high pH level. Caustic soda has a strong affinity for moisture. It readily absorbs water from the surrounding environment, continuing to do so until the point where it completely dissolves. This hygroscopic property of caustic soda means that it will continuously draw in and incorporate atmospheric moisture, transforming from a solid state into a liquid solution as more water is absorbed.

Caustic soda is one of the most important and widely used chemical feedstocks globally. Notably, caustic soda is also a co-product generated during the production of chlorine, which accounts for 97% of the chlorine manufacturing process through the electrolysis of sodium chloride.

 

Technical Characteristics

Chemical formula NaOH
CAS Number 1310-73-2
Other names Ascarite, Caustic soda, Lye, Soda lye

Sodium hydrate, White caustic

Molecular Weight 39.997 g/mole
Appearance White, opaque crystals
Density 2.13 g/cm³

 

 

Applications

This versatile chemical compound finds extensive applications across various industries:

  • Textile Industry: Caustic soda plays a crucial role in removing impurities from fibers during textile processing. The fabric is immersed in an alkaline solution containing caustic soda and boiled. This process causes oily substances like natural wax to dissolve, creating a layer of soapy residue on the surface of the solution. This phase, known as saponification, is integral to the overall textile treatment process, referred to as scouring.
  • Petroleum Engineering: Caustic soda is an effective neutralizing agent for sulfuric acid. During the drilling of formations using drilling mud, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) components present in certain geological layers can dissolve into the drilling mud, forming sulfuric acid. This acidic liquid is detrimental to the mechanical components of the drill bit. To mitigate the serious effects of the acid, mud engineers add caustic soda to the drilling mud solution. The caustic soda neutralizes the sulfuric acid, helping to protect the sensitive parts of the drill bit from corrosion and damage.
  • Paper industry: The majority of impurities present in the raw wood, including lignin, oleoresin, and waxes, are removed by utilizing caustic soda. This process helps in separating these impurities from the wood, allowing for the production of high-quality cellulose needed for paper manufacturing.
  • Food processing: the browning of pretzels to enhance their crispiness. It is employed to peel the skin off tomatoes, potatoes, and other fruits and vegetables before canning. Additionally, caustic soda serves as a food preservative ingredient, playing a crucial role in inhibiting the growth of mold and bacteria in food products.

 

Environmental impact and sustainability of Caustic Soda   

Caustic soda, being a potent alkali, has the potential to cause severe burns and tissue damage if it comes into contact with the skin or eyes. It is crucial to wear appropriate protective gear like gloves and goggles while working with caustic soda to reduce the risk of injury.

When caustic soda mixes with water, it undergoes an exothermic reaction, releasing heat. This reaction can be vigorous, leading to splashes and burns. Dilution processes should be approached with caution to prevent accidents.

Inhaling caustic soda fumes or mist can irritate the respiratory system, causing coughing or breathing difficulties. Adequate ventilation is necessary in enclosed spaces where caustic soda is used to minimize inhalation risks.

Disposing of caustic soda solutions into water bodies can harm the environment. The high alkalinity of caustic soda can disrupt water pH levels, affecting aquatic ecosystems. Proper disposal methods that adhere to environmental regulations are essential to mitigate these environmental risks.

Packing and Storage

Caustic soda is packed and stored using specific packing to ensure safety, prevent contamination, and maintain its quality. In order to deliver sodium hydroxide products to the customer, different packings are used as follows:

25 KG Polypropylene Bags; Jumbo bags; Shrinked 25 KG Bags on Wooden Pallets; and IBC Container.

The availability of caustic soda in these different formats allows for flexibility in transportation, storage, and distribution, catering to the specific requirements of various applications and industries.

Because its vapors are toxic, sodium hydroxide storage should be well-ventilated. Secure storage buildings to prevent unauthorized access. Never allow untrained personnel access to caustic soda. Caustic soda crystallizes at low temperatures. Keep storage temperatures controlled in the range 85 F to 100 F. If the temperature drops below 65 F, the viscosity of the product increases, which may affect its performance.

Citric Acid

Citric acid is a naturally occurring substance and a common metabolite found in plants and animals. A healthy adult human body produces and metabolizes approximately 1.5 kg of citric acid per day. Additionally, this organic acid is obtained from a wide variety of natural dietary sources.

Citric acid has several highly variable characteristics, and as a purely biological product, it can be safely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. As a result, citric acid is employed in a growing number of products and is the most versatile and widely used organic acid in the food and beverage (70%) as well as the pharmaceutical (10%) sectors.

The production of citric acid (CA) fluctuates based on factors such as demand, pricing, and manufacturer capacity. In recent years, the CA market has faced significant pressure. The high costs of raw materials and energy have transformed what was once a profitable CA production sector into an unprofitable market. As a result, finding alternative.

Technical Characteristics

Chemical formula C₆H₈O₇
CAS Number 77-92-9
Other names 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, Anhydrous citric acid, Citrate, Citric Acid Monohydrate, Uralyt U
Molecular Weight 192.124 g/mole
Appearance Odorless white solid
Density 1.66 g/cm³ (Anhydrous)

 

Applications

The application of citric acid spans across various industries and products.

Food and Beverages: Citric acid is widely used as a preservative, flavor enhancer, and acidity regulator in food and beverage products. It helps extend shelf life, adds a tart, tangy flavor, and adjusts the pH.

Cosmetics: In cosmetics, citric acid is added to skincare products like cleansers, toners, and serums. It helps brighten the skin, minimize the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and even out skin tone.

Cleaning Products: Citric acid is utilized in cleaning products due to its disinfectant properties, ability to remove stains, and effectiveness in removing hard water deposits and buildup.

Pharmaceuticals: In the pharmaceutical industry, citric acid serves as a pH corrector and antioxidant. It helps preserve the stability and potency of vitamins, minerals, and other active ingredients in drug formulations.

Environmental impact and sustainability of Citric Acid

The corrosive properties of this substance can hinder plant germination. Increasing the amount of this substance in the soil raises its acidity, disrupting plant growth systems and potentially leading to premature plant death due to nutrient deficiencies. While citric acid has some positive effects on the environment and human life, its impact is limited.

Repeated application of this acid can induce an allelopathic effect in plants, inhibiting the growth of plants and biological processes. This characteristic has led to the use of citric acid in weed control. Additionally, small quantities of citric acid and ascorbic acid can aid in the rooting and survival of cherry branches.

Excessive use of citric acid in water can disrupt the Krebs cycle and lead to the accumulation of excess phosphate. The Krebs cycle is essential for plants to convert citric acids into phosphate, providing energy to cells.

Packing and Storage

Citric acid is offered in various physical forms for commercial use, including granular, fine granular, powder, liquid (as a 50% solution), and anhydrous (solid) forms. Companies such as Univar Solutions supply citric acid in these diverse granular, powder, and liquid variations to cater to the requirements of different industries and applications. Citric Acid and Citrates shall be kept in tightly closed containers in a cool, dry, well-ventilated and pollution-free place. Open-air storage is not allowed. Keep away from toxic, harmful, corrosive, polluting goods. Keep at temperature not exceeding 30℃ at a relative humidity not exceeding 50%. Citric acid can be packaged and delivered in sacks or big bags.

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